Ainda – e sempre – as relações transatlânticas
Numa perspectiva europeia, qual foi a importância das políticas adoptadas pela Administração Bush no pós-11 de Setembro? De que forma o intenso debate intra-europeu e transatlântico aquando da Guerra do Iraque influenciou a consciência colectiva europeia e ajudou a criar consensos para a definição de objectivos comuns mais ambiciosos? Será que podemos dizer que, por oposição aos EUA, a UE pôde “aumentar” o chamado “menor denominador comum”? Se sim, essa “elevação da fasquia” deu-se apenas no âmbito da política externa e de segurança ou alastrou a outros domínios? Será o Tratado de Lisboa ainda um reflexo indirecto dessa tendência?
Para procurar a resposta a estas e outras questões participarei numa Conferência do Council for European Studies da Universidade de Columbia. A Seventeenth International Conference terá lugar em Montreal entre 15 e 17 de Abril, e o painel em que estou inserido tem o nome “The George W. Bush Administration and the Development of ESDP“. O paper chama-se “Against All Odds: ESDP Developments in the Fight Against Terrorism during the Bush Administration“, e o resumo é o seguinte:
Evidence shows that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 acted as an alarm call in the EU, leading to important developments in its foreign, security and defence policies. Milestone EU documents of the post-9/11 era such as the Laeken Declaration on the Future of Europe, the European Security Strategy (ESS) and the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe reflected a growing concern about the threat posed by post-national terrorism, but modelled an EU approach that is different from the one adopted by Washington. Transatlantic debates on “new Europe vs old Europe” and pan-European introspections such as Habermas and Derridas’ “core Europe” influenced this autonomous path adopted by the EU as regards its foreign, security and defence polices, more specifically its approach to the fight against terrorism.
Being officially and theoretically established by several European Councils from 1999, the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) had not been conceived to fight terrorism, as this was generally perceived in the EU as an internal threat and, then, addressed under EU’s third pillar, relating to Justice and Home Affairs. Notwithstanding, 9/11 events contributed to a shift in this approach, and the European Council of Seville in June 2002 acknowledged the importance of the contribution of its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including its European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), in the fight against terrorism. The ESS of 2003 and many other documents further stressed that idea in identifying terrorism as one of the major threats confronting European security. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to examine and discuss the developments on ESDP in the Bush years, more specifically in what regards the development of an autonomous EU approach to the fight against terrorism; it shall appraise how this approach towards counterterrorism has challenged the EU security system and how the EU has adapted to it.
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